While any UK spectators may have enjoyed a warm all-nighter watching the Philadelphia Eagles beat the New England Patriots 41 – 33 last night from the comfort of our own homes, those lucky enough to be part of the Super Bowl action in Minneapolis could have been in for a much chillier evening.

With the outside temperature dropping to 3°F, the 52nd Super Bowl was effectively the coldest to date. Luckily for attendees, one of the main architectural features of the U.S. Bank Stadium ensured a cosy internal climate. Serving as the kinetics lead to HKS Sports & Entertainment Group for U.S. Bank Stadium, Thornton Tomasetti provided structural, façade and construction engineering services.

Built with ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) panels covering 60% of the roof, the 240,000 square feet roof is the largest of its kind in North America and the first in a northern climate. The benefits of a fluorocarbon-based polymer include its versatility: the capacity to be incorporated into larger panels than with glass, used in a wide range of temperatures, corrosion and chemical resistant, unaffected by UV light and transparent. Only one of two NFL stadiums to achieve LEED Gold certification, the roof uses key energy efficient technology allowing it to offset 100% of its electricity usage.

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